Wednesday, June 24, 2020
How Nationality, Social Status, and Gender Affect Pechorins Interactions with Individuals - Literature Essay Samples
During the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s, the cultural movement of Russian Romanticism evoked a multitude of intense feelings amongst the Russians, in particular a fervent sense of nationalism. This inspiration occurred incongruence with an enormous Russian victory. At this time, Russia triumphed in the first half of a tenacious war with the tribal people of the northern Caucasus Mountains. The Russian nationalism includes a strong sense of superiority, as seen in many works of Romanticism during this time period. In the Russian novel A Hero of Our Time, gender and status trigger PechorinÃ¢â¬â¢s Byronic quality of superiority towards those around him. Lermontov highlights the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s arrogant attitude specifically through his interactions with mountain tribes, women, and peers. In the beginning of the novel, Lermontov PechorinÃ¢â¬â¢s superiority over the Caucasian mountain people arises due to the popular belief among Russians during the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s. In order to protect routes to new Trans-Caucasian possessions, Russia desires to assimilate the region into their own territory holdings. Upon winning the first half of the war, Ã¢â¬Å"the widespread attitude towards the mountain tribes was the same as that towards savages, who they saw as either outside culture altogether or at its lowest levelÃ¢â¬ (Durylin 127-128). This attitude appears exceedingly prevalent amongst Russian army, including Pechorin. His racist mindset presents itself in his relationship with the tribal princess Bela. Since Pechorin considers her people inferior, he believes that his kidnapping of the princess seems justifiable, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ that wild Circassian girl should be happy to have such a sweet husbandÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Lermontov 21). Due to his notable status, Pechorin reasons that Bela should feel grateful that she can live an ameliorate life as opposed to one she might live back in her village. Moreover, PechorinÃ¢â¬â¢s superiority translates into a feeling of ownership over Bela. In his mind, his supremacy asserts his right over the princess and confirms his ability to control her. Pechorin explains to Maxim Maximich, Ã¢â¬Å"[The innkeeperÃ¢â¬â¢s wife] knows Tatar and is going to look after [Bela] and accustom her to the idea that she is mine, because she will never belong to anyone elseÃ¢â¬ (24). Since Pechorin believes he possesses supremacy over Bela, he refuses to give the Ã¢â¬Å"savage kingÃ¢â¬ his daughter back since he no longer controls her. Ultimately, the superior attitude that Pechorin exhibits within the novel A Hero of Our Time reflects the typical attitude held by most during the time of the Russo-Circassian War. Additionally, within the novel, Lermontov depicts Pechorin as a male chauvinist throughout his exchanges with women. Pechorin insinuates that women serve only as objects for conquering, as opposed to actual human beings. His mindset originates from a prophecy he receives during his childhood, which predicts Ã¢â¬Å"death at the hands of an evil wifeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (127). From that point on, Pechorin refuses to allow any woman to overtake him as he describes in his journal, Ã¢â¬Å"One thing I have always found strange: I have never become the slave of a woman I loved. On the contrary, I have always acquired over them, through my will and hear, invincible power, without the slightest effortÃ¢â¬ (93). Pechorin enhances his overall sense of superiority by dominating women before they discover an opportunity to overtake him. His most notably conquest of a woman appears in his interactions with Princess Mary. Throughout their time together in Pyatigorsk, Pechorin believes that his relatio nship with the princess seems like nothing other than a game he tries to win, Ã¢â¬Å"But I have guessed your secret, dear princess so take care! You wish to repay me in the same coin, to prick my vanity. You shall not succeed! And if you declare war on me, then I shall be mercilessÃ¢â¬ (105). Pechorin does not appear to possess any feelings for Princess Mary; instead, he attempts to get the upper hand in their relationship before she does. Furthermore, every milestone that Pechorin accomplishes in his game to win Princess Mary seems like an emotionless victory, Ã¢â¬Å"She is displeased with herself. She is accusing herself of coldness! Oh, this is the first, the main triumph. Tomorrow she will want to make it up to me. I know all this by heart already, and that is what is so boringÃ¢â¬ (111). Perchorin does not feel any love as his relationship with Mary develops. Dominance and boredom seem like the only sensations he notices. All in all, the male chauvinistic behavior that Le rmontov utilizes to depict his protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with women stem from PechorinÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood prophecy as well as his desire to surmount them. Moreover, the author demonstrates that Pechorin tends to gravitate towards superiority over those around him because he enjoys the feeling of dominance. In a journal entry, the protagonist confesses that Ã¢â¬Å"If I considered myself to be better, mightier than anyone else on earth, I would be happyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (107). The attitude that Pechorin embodies in this quotation appears in a specific relationship with one of his army colleague, Grushnitsky. Once Pechorin recognizes his peerÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings for Princess Mary, he immediately attempts to win the princess for himself, just to prove his superiority. He finds pleasure in watching Grushnitsky lose the affections of Mary as she begins to fall in love with Pechorin, Ã¢â¬Å"I look at othersÃ¢â¬â¢ sufferings and joys only with respect to myself, as on food sustaining my emotional strengthÃ¢â¬ ¦ my principle satisfaction lies in bending to my will all that surrounds meÃ¢â¬ (107). Pechorin recognizes his colleagueÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the princess, thereby making his suffering exceedingly enjoyable to the protagonist. Additionally, the desire for superiority justifies why Pechorin does not possess any true friendships. Even in a relationship with only one other person, the protagonist believes that an opportunity for inferiority presents itself, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ I am incapable of friendship: of two friends, one is always the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s slave, although often neither will admit to this. I cannot be a slaveÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (83). Instead of friendships, Pechorin prefers to have enemies since they offer him a chance for superiority and dominance. After uncovering GrushnitskyÃ¢â¬â¢s plan for revenge, Pechorin admits that, Ã¢â¬Å"[Enemies] amuse me, stir my blood. To be always on guard, to catch every glance and the meaning of every word, to guess intentions, spoil plots, pretend to be deceivedÃ¢â¬ ¦thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what I call life!Ã¢â¬ (117). The rush of adrenaline that Pechorin senses after victoriously conqu ering those around him prevents him from engaging in conventional friendships. Ultimately, the enjoyment of a superior status elucidates PechorinÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with those around him, specifically his relationship with Grushnitsky, and also explains why he never engages in any normal friendships. As seen in LermontovÃ¢â¬â¢s novel A Hero of Our Time, the gender and status of those Pechorin encounters greatly influences how he chooses to interact with them. The Caucasus mountain tribes, women, as well as peers, in particular, suffer the consequences of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for superiority. Pechorin acquires a pleasurable sensation of supremacy by inflicting racist, chauvinistic, or dominant feelings on those he meets. The concept of superiority appeared frequently during the time of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s publishing, 1830. Russian Romanticism often incorporated that feeling because of the events occurring at the time.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Immigration In America The people living in the United States of America are confronted with a debatable issue each and everyday. Illegal immigration into America and the immigration laws that follow make for an emotional topic. Often times people in the U.S argue whether the laws against illegal and legal immigration in America are the proper laws for the issues at hand. Many people think that illegal immigration should be stopped while others believe that the outbreak of newcomers can help America grow. There is a growing debate about immigration in the United States; some natives believe that the immigrants are adding to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse background and providing more culture while others believe that the new coming immigrants are taking away opportunities for those already living in the United States. Despite the few beneficial changes immigrants bring to America upon entering, the negative aspects that affect the lives of many Americans each day, far outweigh the posi tives. Many people in America believe that illegal and legal immigration is ruining America as a country. The growing numbers of illegal immigrants requires more of the taxpayers money to support them since the immigrants are living undocumented. The United States has assumed a great national debt and the outbreak of illegal immigrants entering the country has provided more debt. Undocumented immigrants are often the responsibilities of the government even though they are not US-born citizens.Show MoreRelatedImmigration And The United States986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImmigration in the United States continues to increase rapidly year by year. According to an analysis of monthly Census Bureau data by the Center for Immigration Studies, the immigration population in the United States, both legal and illegal, hit a record of 42.1 million in the second quarter of this year, an increase of 1.7 million since the same quarter of 2014 (CIS.org). Clearly, Immigrants make up a large part of t he population in the United States, and for most immigrants, migrating to theRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Michelle Faed English 126 Immigration in the United States The United States of America, being a country established by immigrants, is known all over the world as the land of great opportunities. People from all walks of life travelled across the globe, taking a chance to find a better life for them and their family. Over the years, the population of immigrants has grown immensely, resulting in the currently controversial issue of illegal immigration. Illegal immigrants are the people whoRead MoreImmigration And The United States965 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Immigration is a highly controversial and big problem in the United States today. Ã¢â¬Å"While some characterize our immigration crisis as solely an issue of the 11 to 12 million unauthorized immigrants living in this country, our problems extend beyond the number of undocumented people to a broader range of issues. The lack of a comprehensive federal solution has created a slew of lopsided, enforcement-only initiatives that have cost the country billions of dollars while failing to end un authorizedRead MoreImmigration On The United States1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImmigration Rights in the U.S. Immigration has occurred in the U.S. for for many years. Some say itÃ¢â¬â¢s the foundation of our country. America is the country where people leave their own country to live. People would leave due to mistreatment, hunger issues or job opportunities. America is known for starting over or accomplishing dreams, so immigrants travel over to follow those dreams. People emigrate from one country to another for a variety of complex reasons. Some are forced to move, due to conflictRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe vast majority of people living in the United States are descendants of immigrants, and yet majority of them are against them. It is quickly forgotten that America was built on immigrants that wanted a new life. A life free from harsh government, and the freedom from forced religion. The original settlers were immigrants that stole this land; immigrants continued to come for years. It is not a newly constructed concept that immigrants have always been a problem, ask any Native American. One usedRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Camarota (2007, p.1), director of the Immigration Studies Center, reports there are 1.6 million documented and undocumented migrants take up residence in the United States every year. Camarota goes on to say that the immigrants occupy one-eighth of the total population who settled in the U.S. The flood of aliens, to a significant degree, hinders the development of the United States. Therefore, the issues which relate to immigration must not be neglected, and the government should keep the numberRead MoreImmigration And The United States Essay1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Immigration has been a large conversation topic for such a long time in our country. We have worked on policies for immigration, and have made changes to them throughout the duration of our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. This topic is always worth mentioning and important, but has become a bigger topic once again due to presidential elections and the conversations being had about immigration from said elections. It is not necessarily easily seen if the concern with immigration is who is here legally or limitingRead MoreImmigration Of The United States1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA native of Mexico, Gonzalez came to the United States using a visa, to visit family members and in 1994, police convicted Gonzalez of the abduction and rape of a Waukegan, Illinois woman. During his conviction his attorney, Vanessa Potkin, addressed that at twenty years old, Gonzalez spoke very little English, had no criminal record, and yet the police wanted to pin the crime on him. Twenty years later, DNA from the crime cleared him of both charges, and Gonzalez is now threatened with deportationRead MoreImmigration : The United States1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe United States is a popular and powerful which many people admire. It is very true that the country prospect and is more enrich. O pening the border might improve the economy or can impact the job market for American citizens. It is the jobs of American citizens to be given more to this illegal immigrant. I believe the U.S. borders should remain closed. While it is clear that opening the borders can have benefits, I believe it is more important to keep jobs available for Americans. In my opinionRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFrench and European to settle in the New World. Since the colonial era, America has seen a wave of immigrants migrate in search of freedom and equality. Is this the same immigration today? Nearly 11.6 million immigrants from Mexico reside in the U.S. Today Immigration has a significant impact on many aspects of life in the United States, from the workforce and the classroom to communities across the country. Not all immigrants come to America legally whether as naturalized citizens, legal permanent residents
Monday, May 18, 2020
All authors of famous short stories want their reader to be engaged in their readings. Most authors have their own unique and different ideas brought into their text. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what I think symbolism means in terms of English Literature. It is creating the background for us readers. The author wants us to connect the dots in the story. When the author makes the connection, we are more engaged and interested in what else he has to write. Most symbols used in literature are objects used to represent other things or ideas. There are several ways to recognize symbolism in literature. One of common ways is the frequency an object or character is mentioned in a piece of literature. If it is mentioned often, it is probably important. (Jones) AnotherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Charlotte began to understand her roles of wife and mother as the root causes of her depression. Subsequently, she separated from Charles and eventually divorced him. Charlotte published The Yellow Wallpaper, a fictional short story based on her experience with the rest cure, in 1892. Katharine Beecher Stetson, as she grew older, came to resent her mother for what she saw as her abandonment. Likewise, Charlotte was critical of herself for this decision as well, as part of her wanted to fulfill the motherly role successfully, to give Katharine all the love she had never received from her own mother. However, her aspirations as a writer and lecturer superseded any goal of traditional womanhood. Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wall-paperÃ¢â¬ is about a woman who suffers from mental illness after three months of being closeted in a room by her husband for the sake of her health. She becomes obsessed with the room s revolting yellow wallpaper. The narrator in the story must do as her husband, who is also her doctor, demands, although the treatment he prescribes contrasts directly with what she truly needs Ã¢â¬â mental stimulation and the freedom to escape the monotony of the room to which she is confin ed. The Yellow Wall-paper was essentially a response to the doctor who had tried to cure her of her depression through a rest cure, Dr. Silas Weir Mitchell, and she sent him a copy of the story. Towards the end of GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s life, she was diagnosed with Breast cancer. She then committedShow MoreRelatedThe Symbolism of the Birches839 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestemporary channel of escape from the world and its harsh realities. The speaker uses his imagination to return to his innocent childhood. He hopes to relieve stress and prepare to face life and reality once again. Frost predominantly uses imagery and symbolism to emphasize the main ideas of the poem, but also uses other methods such as tone, figures of speech, rhythm, and poem structure. The entire idea of bent birch trees acts as a symbol representing life, the speaker s denial towards reality, andRead MoreSymbolism in a Rose for Emily1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOctober 2015 Word Count: 1,305 Small Signs Symbolism in literature is using an object to portray a different, deeper meaning in a story. Symbols represent ideas or qualities that the author has maneuvered into his or her story that has meaning. There can be multiple symbols in a story or just one. It is up to the reader to interpret the meaning of the symbols and their significance to the story. In Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , William Faulkner effectively uses symbolism to illustrate the fading glory of the OldRead MoreSymbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"CatsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"ShilohÃ¢â¬ 597 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesJill McCorkle, along with Bobbie Ann Mason often use the symbolism of a short story to further the meaning of the piece. In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"ShilohÃ¢â¬ , Mason uses Leroy and Norma Jean to exhibit a further meaning of the story by effectively using symbolism. In addition to Ã¢â¬Å"ShilohÃ¢â¬ , McCorkle also uses symbolism in her story Ã¢â¬Å"CatsÃ¢â¬ to symbolise how cats can be related to humans in multiple ways. McCorkle describes the relationship between two cats, Pumpkin Pie and Possum, and their two human counterpartsRead MoreSymbolism in The Lottery Essay802 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessentence is written with a unique purpose often using symbolism. Her use of symbols not only foreshadow its surprise and disturbing ending but allows the reader to evaluate the communitys pervert traditional rituals. She may be commenting on the season of the year and the grass being Ã¢â¬Å"richly greenÃ¢â¬ or the toying with the meanings of the characters names but each statement applies to the meaning and lesson behind her story. As far as symbolism in objects, the most prominent and often mentioned isRead MoreSymbolism In The Things They Carried1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesevery day? Everybody carries things that symbolize who they are or where they are from. Those things may be heavy, light, or even things that you cannot see. In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The Things They CarriedÃ¢â¬ by Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, he introduces a lot of symbolism in every object mentioned, many of them you can see, some you canÃ¢â¬â¢t see. In this short story, the narrator tells of the burdens carried by each soldier and the meanings of these things to the men. The things they carried described in detail theRead MoreSymbolism And Symbolism Of Everyday Use By F. Scott Fitzgerald1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstory, in other scenarios things like a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality or features can mean more than what they seem. For example, the dove is a symbol of peace. Also a red rose or even the color red stands for romance. This liter ary technique is called symbolism; symbolism is a form of communication used to convey information through the use of symbols. Often, symbols are embedded in larger images so one must read in-between the lines to better understand a deeper meaning of the symbol. The short story Ã¢â¬Å"EverydayRead MoreSymbolism in The Storm Essay624 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSymbolism in Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The StormÃ¢â¬ , written by Kate Chopin in 1898, examines the uncontrollable desires of a young wife, lured into the arms of her past lover as her husband and son are caught in a storm. BobinÃ ´t and four-year-old Bibi are running errands when the storm suddenly hit. BobinÃ ´tÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Calixta was at home sewing when she noticed the severe storm happening outside. When Calixta went outside to gather some clothing, her old lover AlcÃ ©e asked for shelter during the storm. ThroughRead MoreA And P Symbolism Essay877 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Symbolism is the use of symbols that help represent ideas or qualities. In literature, authors use symbolism to illustrate a specific mood or emotion through the use of objects or characters. Symbolism helps engage the readers to predict and analyze certain meanings presented in the story instead of just reading it. The two short stories, Ã¢â¬Å"A and PÃ¢â¬ written by John Updike and Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ written by Nathaniel Hawthorne both showcase and convey symbolism throughout their writing. Read MoreSymbolism in the Secret Lion724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSymbolism in The Secret Lion The Secret Lion, written by Alberto Rios, is a short story rich in symbolism. The lion, or more specifically a secret lion, the arroyo, or river, and the grinding ball are all symbols used in the story to reinforce the theme of coming of age. The first and most obvious symbol in the story is the lion, or more specifically, the secret lion. It is not a literal lion. The lion of the story represents things that are big and the secret of it is that it is unexplainedRead MoreSymbolism in Whitmans Poem2611 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSymbolism in WhitmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Poems A number of influences operated upon Walt Whitman (1819-1892) from childhood which inspired him to become a poet. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic ideas went a long way towards making him a poet of democratic ideals. He expressed his ideas about democracy, love, sex, mysticism and science in his poems. While expressing his ideas he used symbols from nature, such as grass, plants, birds and heavenly bodies, enabling readers to understand his ideas clearly. Ã¢â¬Å"Indirection is an
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Gabby Douglas was the first African-American female gymnast in Olympic history to become the individual All-Around champion. In the 2012 Olympic Games, she won gold in the team competition and the individual competition. She is a gymnastics phenom. From the beginning of her career to where she is today, she has been a true trooper through everything. Gabrielle Douglas is an inspiration to me and many others because she overcame being homeless,moved in with a new family, and won Olympic gold in gymnastics. On December 31, 1995, Gabrielle Christina Victoria Douglas also known as Flying Squirrel, was born in Virginia Beach, Virginia (Douglas, Gabrielle). Her dad, Timothy Douglas and mom, Natalie Hawkins were experienced parentsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Excalibur was a horrifying experience for Gabby. There, she was taunted. The other girls told her to get a nose job, and also called her there slave. Excalibur denied any of the accusations about Gabby being taunted (Neporent, Liz) . Gabby changed gyms and soon became the state champ in 2004 after only four years of formal training (Gabby Douglas). She continually won first at all of the meets (Gabby Douglas).GabbyÃ¢â¬â¢s mom noticed that her talent was becoming too much for the gym she was training at. After watching Shawn Johnson at the 2008 Olympics and being compared to Dominique Dawes, one of the greatest African American gymnast, she knew that the Olympics were a perfect fit for her (Schoeller, Martin). The only issue she had with getting to the Olympics was her current coaching. She needed to go to West Des Moines, Iowa to train Liang Chow. He is an elite gymnastics coach known for coaching Shaun Johnson and many other gymnastics icons. With Chow, Gabby could master the necessary skills to be able to qualify for the 2012 Olympic Games. Gabby left her home at age 14. Her mom flew with her up to ChowÃ¢â¬â¢s Gym and scheduled a meeting with him. There Chow told Gabby that she would be living with a host f amily for the time she was in Iowa. At the gym that day Missy Parton introduced herself to Gabby as her her host mom (Douglas, Gabrielle). Missy took Gabby home and introduced her to her husband and three girls. Gabby and the girls hitShow MoreRelatedThe Nationalistic Portrayals Of American1849 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesand Gold: The Nationalistic Portrayals of American Olympic Athletes in the U.S. Sport Media There is arguably no other international event in the world that celebrates sport more than the Olympics. The modern Olympic Games are perhaps the most prominent media event in the world capturing the attention of billions of people around the globe on a recurring basis (Walters Murphy, 2008). Zaharopoulos (2007) noted that now that billions of people view the Olympic Games on television, it has becomeRead MoreThe Movie The Star Spangled Banner 1991 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesis elected as our president. When the quarterback of the San Francisco 49ers Colin Kaepernick decided to not stand for the playing of the national anthem in the pre-season game of the NFL, he was the first athlete to vividly illustrate his outrage over the police brutality stirring within the American population. His actions have led to a wave of athlete protests who are joining to exercise their constitutional rights and help fight against an issue bigger than sports. However, there are many citizens
If this is true, which is more debatable than it might seem, then happiness becomes the overarching explanatory concept in all of psychology, and surely the most urgent of personal questions for any human being to solve. More than this, happiness also moves to the centre of political and economic 1 introduction decisions. If maximizing happiness is the point of individual lives, then the point of systems of government and economy should be to maximize collective or aggregate happiness. This position is a pure form of the doctrine of Utilitarianism, which was made famous by moral philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748Ã¢â¬â1832), but foreshadowed in the thought of Francis Hutcheson who claimed, Ã¢â¬ËThat action is best, which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest numbersÃ¢â¬â¢. This form of utilitarianism has an enduring appeal. The government of the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan recently announced that the goal of public policy there would be to increase not the Gross National Product, but the Gross National Happiness. We will write a custom essay sample on Happiness: the Science Behind Your Smile or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Bhutanese are obviously on to something. Happy people live longer than unhappy people and are less vulnerable to disease. And there are enduring differences in happiness between nations, between the rich and the poor, and between the married and the single. However enlightened it may seem, though, the Bhutanese strategy immediately raises questions. Can peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness actually be changed by public action? Come to think of it, can it be changed by any means at all? If so, how? And how should we assess the Gross National Happiness? The early Utilitarians had recognized that implementing their programme required a device for meas2 introduction ring happinessÃ¢â¬âa hedonimeter. No such device exists, of course. We can ask people how happy they feel. This turns out to be a surprisingly revealing exercise, as we shall see. However, happiness has multiple senses. Its function in the sentence, Ã¢â¬ËI was happy to see BobÃ¢â¬â¢, may be rather different from that in the sentence, Ã¢â¬ËI was happy with the foreign policy of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢. So before we could use judgements of happiness as a touchstone for public life, we would need to undertake a great deal of empirical work on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and feelings about happiness, and how the feeling of happiness relates to the quality of life. This is work that psychologists have begun over the last few decades, and its illuminating results will be reviewed in this book. In Chapter 1, we examine the concept of happiness and attempt to tease apart its various senses. Some varieties of happiness may be more measurable than others, and some, perhaps not the same ones, more worth pursuing. Chapter 2 examines the question of whether people are basically happy or basically unhappy, and why. Chapters 3 and 4 turn to the question of why some people seem to be happier than others: are people happy because good things happen to them, or do good things happen to them because they are happy? We shall see evidence that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s enduring levels of happiness come at least as much 3 introduction from themselves and the way they think as they do from the objective facts of their circumstances. Chapter 5 turns to the brain systems underlying emotions and moods. The feeling of well-being emerges from the interplay of neural circuits that are the products of millions of years of evolution. In men as in mice, positive and negative emotions rely on separate, dedicated neural circuits, which respond to status, to threats, and to rewards in the environment. The systems controlling pleasure are not identical to those controlling desire. This is an important lesson; the psychology of aspiration is not that of satisfaction. We do not always want what we like or like what we want. Chapter 6 considers the problem of how to be happier, from the kinds of remedies on offer to the ways in which they can work. Finally, Chapter 7 attempts to synthesize brie? y what we know about the often paradoxical psychology of happiness, and consider why we might be set up the way that we are.
Question: Describe about the Accounting for Managers for Globalization and Economy. Answer: Problem 1 Faster processes and reduced process times to help companies to be more competitive Globalization in the economy requires the formulation of new technologies for production process of the companies with respect to the faster and accurate production of goods and services. With the continuous increase in the market competition, it is essential for the companies to improve the process time in the areas of engineering and administration. Business Process re- engineering is a procedures adopted by many organizations in the recent times to improve the business activities (Polyvyanyy, Smirnov and Weske 2015). It involves the structural change in the areas of technology and manufacturing areas considering the locations and products of the companies. Business Process re- engineering is a process in which fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business process is conducted to improve the speed of the production of goods by maintaining the quality. The process requires the preparation of structures as per the measured set of activities in the areas of engineering, admi nistration and information technology by adopting the updates techniques (Koetter and Kochanowski 2015). The process timing in the concerned areas can be reduced by incorporating the updated production techniques in the engineering areas. However, in the administration area the process timing can be reduced by incorporating skilled and experienced personnel to operate the business activities. In order to be more competitive, the companies may incorporate online activities that provide faster and accurate results in the business activities (Mijumbi et al. 2015). Importance of improved quality In order to maintain the competitiveness it is essential to produce the work faster by reducing the process time but at the same time quality of the process should be improved. In the present era, consumers are more concerned about the quality of the products rather than any other factors therefore, the companies are required to maintain and improve the quality in the production process (Weber, Olaru and Marin 2016). For instance, Woolworths Limited, one of the largest companies in Australia is known for best quality products as well as improved organizational structure in terms of supermarket chain. High quality products as well as processes are essential in different areas of the business organizations for production process and administration department. Many companies are working to follow the concept of six- sigma in producing the products that involves the production of products with 99.99% perfection. The improved quality in the production process of the company is essential t o create the trust, reliability, marketability and competitiveness that help in maximization of profits and wealth of the company and its stakeholders (Hambrick, Humphrey and Gupta 2015). iii. Potential problems may arise from the increased speed of processes Increased speed of processes in the business organization influence several factors with respect to the production, management and distribution that may form potential problems. One of the major problems that may arise is maintenance and improvement of quality in the production processes and products. Increase in the speed of the processes may affect the quality of the products while designing, development or manufacturing the products and services. Another potential problem that may arise is maintenance of quantity in case the production process is conducted in batch system (Leung, Parker and Courtis 2015). In case the process speed is increased, it is likely to affect the quantity that is established to be produced under the normal standard set by the management. Further, the increased speed of processes impacts the communication between the executive employees and subordinates that affect the flow of relevant information required for business decisions. Further, the increase in sp eed of process may create the potential problem with respect to finding the root cause in difference of improved production process, administration process and distribution process. Increase in the speed of the processes creates faster production and business activities but at the same time, it creates several problems within the business process that may affect the organizational competitiveness (Georgieva 2015). Problem 2 In the present situation, operations of XYZ Ltd having two branches in Brisbane and Adelaide represented changes in the financial statements. The operational result in the Brisbane branch reflected increase in net profit as well as the balance of finished goods inventory. On the contrary, Adelaide branch reflected no net profit but the balance of finished goods inventory disclosed reduction. It can be analyzed that the reduction in the balance of inventory results in reduction in cost of goods sold whereas the increase in inventory results in lowering the net income before tax (Cheng, Harford and Zhang 2015). However, in case of income of Brisbane factory, net profit reflected increased balance even though the finished goods inventory increased. It can be said that the business operations of Brisbane factory was more efficient than the operations in Adelaide factory since it did not reflect any net profit even the inventory showed a reduced balance. Considering the financial result and efficiency of business operation, the managerial bonus was offered to the manager of Brisbane factory and not to the manager of Adelaide factory. Though the offer of managerial bonus was justified, it creates conflicts if it is provided only on the basis of the net profit generated by the company. One of the major conflicts that may arise is long- term risks if the bonus is offered only on the generation of net income since generation of net profit depends on several factors. Additionally, conflicts on the motivation of manager will be affected since the reduction in the finished goods inventory affects reduction in cost of goods sold whereas increase in inventory results in increase of cost of sales. Another conflict that arises on managerial bonus based on the net profit affects the harmonization of diverse interest for the performance of business activities (Lin and Wu 2015). Problem 3 Material variances in a manufacturing company indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of production cost and units. It is measured by using the actual cost and units employed by the company in comparison with the standard set by the management. Favorable material variances indicate the efficient use of raw materials and cost in the process of production of goods and services (Capolei et al. 2015). On the other hand, unfavorable material variance indicates the actual use of units and cost more than the standard units and costs. Similarly, Labor variances indicate the efficiency of labor hours or man- power in production of goods and services by comparing the actual data and standard data. Favorable labor variance indicates that the laborers are efficient in producing the products in less than the standard time set by the company (Taylor 2016). Analysis of production costs and variances for a particular period provides essential information to the management for producing goods and services. It indicates the overall changes in the level of market price, information on the use of quality of the products as per the standard data procured by the management. Production costs and variances provide better negotiation in price to procure the employees or workers for manufacturing process along with the implementation of purchase discounts. It also provides the information on the bargaining power of suppliers, procurement of skilled and unskilled workers at minimum wage rate. Variances and production costs also provides information on the potential profit that the company expects to earn in the given period (Wang and Chan 2015). Problem 4 Variable cost per unit Variable cost per unit is determined by considering the total variable expense in the production process divided by the total units produced or sold. Accordingly, computation of variable cost per unit for the budget A and budget B in the books of Always Right, manufacturing company: Particulars Budget A Budget A Sales Units 20,000.00 30,000.00 Variable Expenses $: Direct materials 260,000.00 360,000.00 Direct Labor 40,000.00 60,000.00 Variable Overhead 60,000.00 75,000.00 Variable selling and administrative expense 60,000.00 60,000.00 Total variable expenses 420,000.00 555,000.00 Variable cost per unit: (Total variable cost/ total sales units) $21.00 $18.50 Table 1: Variable cost per unit (Sources: Created by author) Analysis of costs and sales forecast in the budget A It is mentioned that the lower and middle management presented the budget A while the senior management presented the budget B presenting the sales forecasts by considering 20,000 units and 30,000 units respectively. Since the budget A has been prepared by the lower and middle management, it can be said that it has been prepared with the conservative or bottom- up approach. On the contrary, senior management prepared budget B hence it was carried on by considering the higher amount of sales and lower amount of costs. Another reason could be lack of awareness about the complete information on costs incurred in the production of products (Azzimonti, Battaglini and Coate 2016). iii. Analysis of costs and sales forecast in the budget B Budget B has been prepared by considering the top- down approach, which is prepared for the organization as a whole including the management at lower level. Hence, the sales forecasts taken to prepare the budget B are higher than that of budget A while the fixed cost is lower. Fixed costs in the business activities does not change with the change in production quantity and if it is considered for the entire organization then the proportionate fixed costs reflects a declined value (Delgado, Falcn and Ramrez 2016). Therefore, in case of budget B, the total cost is lower and the sales is higher therefore net profit is also higher for the entire organization. Further, the behavioral implications of the top- down approach are dysfunctional behavior, systematic planning, co- ordination and communication behavior. Top down approach provides the implication on the culture, processes and structural changes concerning the employees of the organization that improves the business activities. Consensus on the budget and advantages of the approach In the present situation, budget A has been prepared by using the bottom- up approach whereas the budget B has been prepared by using top down approach. In order to come to a consensus on the budget the higher management and lower level management teams are required to prepare a detailed schedule on the production and administration costs. Both the groups are required to identify the business activities and related cost pools along with the cost drivers that reflects the accurate results (Azzimonti, Battaglini and Coate 2016). Further, both the groups are required to forecast the sales by considering the market structure, consumer preferences as well as the organizational brand name. Considering the consensus on the budget, it provides several benefits with respect to the inclusion and participation of the groups. It empowers and increases the co- operation between the groups involved in preparation of the budget for the production processes. The budgeting approach establishes the understanding and equalizes the group power that assist in making better business decisions (Delgado, Falcn and Ramrez 2016). Reference List Azzimonti, M., Battaglini, M. and Coate, S., 2016. The costs and benefits of balanced budget rules: Lessons from a political economy model of fiscal policy.Journal of Public Economics,136, pp.45-61. Capolei, A., Suwartadi, E., Foss, B. and Jrgensen, J.B., 2015. A meanvariance objective for robust production optimization in uncertain geological scenarios.Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,125, pp.23-37. Cheng, Y., Harford, J. and Zhang, T.T., 2015. Bonus-driven repurchases.Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,50(03), pp.447-475. Delgado, M.V.M., Falcn, R. and Ramrez, A., 2016. Estimating building construction costs: analysis of the process-based budget model (POP Model).Revista Ingeniera de Construccin,31(1), pp.17-25. Georgieva, D., 2015. Internal Corporate Governance: The Role of Residual Income in Divisional Allocation of Funds. InInternational Corporate Governance(pp. 165-206). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Hambrick, D.C., Humphrey, S.E. and Gupta, A., 2015. Structural interdependence within top management teams: A key moderator of upper echelons predictions.Strategic Management Journal,36(3), pp.449-461. Koetter, F. and Kochanowski, M., 2015. A model-driven approach for event-based business process monitoring.Information Systems and e-Business Management,13(1), pp.5-36. Leung, S., Parker, L. and Courtis, J., 2015. Impression management through minimal narrative disclosure in annual reports.The British Accounting Review,47(3), pp.275-289. Lin, M. and Wu, R., 2015. Production cost heterogeneity in the circular city model.Operations Research Letters,43(4), pp.401-404. Mijumbi, R., Serrat, J., Gorricho, J.L., Bouten, N., De Turck, F. and Boutaba, R., 2015. Network function virtualization: State-of-the-art and research challenges.IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials,18(1), pp.236-262. Polyvyanyy, A., Smirnov, S. and Weske, M., 2015. Business process model abstraction. InHandbook on Business Process Management 1(pp. 147-165). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Taylor, J., 2016. Carbide cutting tool variance and breakage: unknown factors in machining economics.Advances in Machine Tool Design and Research, pp.487-504. Wang, Z. and Chan, F.T., 2015. A robust replenishment and production control policy for a single-stage production/inventory system with inventory inaccuracy.IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems,45(2), pp.326-337. Weber, G.J., Olaru, M. and Marin, G., 2016. Study regarding the correlation between the changes in the energy economy and the competitiveness of companies in Germany and Romania. InChallenges, Performances and Tendencies in Organisation Management(pp. 341-347). World Scientific.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The Great Gatsby Study Essay The conclusion of any novel should be both memorable for the reader and resonate with the main themes of the novel (i. e. the ultimate viewpoint of the author). The Great Gatsby manages to do this successfully, but only thanks to the last page of the novel, which contains exceptionally poignant and expressive writing. By the end of the novel, the main action of the novel (i. e. he passage between the confrontation of Gatsby and Tom at the Plaza Hotel and the deaths of Gatsby and Wilson) has happened: the novel has reached its climax, and now it is losing momentum fast. This leads to an inevitable feeling that the rest of the novel is somewhat of a formality, included merely to tie up the loose ends of the storyline. This lends this last section of a thought-provoking novel a rather artificial feeling, rather self-conscious and detached segment. By the time the reader reaches the very last section, the novel has lost the frenetic pace and contrast that characterised the chapters immediately preceding this conclusion and so the reader may be losing interest, meaning the ending is not memorable thus far. Fitzgerald has, though, worked very hard to emphasise many themes (Gatsbys funeral is poorly attended, showing his lack of actual status, Toms defiance and indifference, showing the amorality of the upper classes) in the closing stages of the novel, even through the lack of action in these closing stages. In the very last section of the novel (from Gatsbys house was still empty when I left), Nicks reflection is highly melancholic and contemplative Fitzgerald employs many aspects of narrative here to convey a sense of sombre finality. The lack of voice in this last section contributes to the feeling of loneliness (perhaps indicative of the true loneliness of Gatsbys life, even during his rampant parties, let alone in his death) and allows the narrative to become focused on Nicks brooding and pensive viewpoint. We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Gatsby Study specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Gatsby Study specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Gatsby Study specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer A good example of Nicks viewpoint is the description of Gatsbys mansion as a huge incoherent failure of a house, reinforcing the idea that Nick pushes throughout the novel: that social mobility is impossible, and that Gatsbys attempt to transform himself into a member of the elite social circles has failed (the failure here symbolised by the brand spanking new mock-Gothic mansion). The setting also shows the ultimate futility of Gatsbys dream: the grass on his lawn had grown as long as mine the reader is reminded of Gatsbys disdain of Nicks lawn when discussing the possibility of a reunion with Daisy, which only further stresses that all of Gatsbys hard work can be so easily undone, also showing the strength of time, and how no-one (not even the Great Gatsby) can emerge from a battle with time victorious; On the white steps (of Gatsbys mansion) an obscene word, scrawled by some boy with a piece of brick, stood out clearly in the moonlight this highlights the facts that Gatsby could never really integrate into East American society and that there are very few people that care for him (also shown by the pitiful attendance at his funeral). The American Dream is also dealt with in this final section, with Fitzgerald touching upon the dreams of the first American settlers and their similarities to those of Gatsby: they both saw a country with the scope for infinite possibility; a wondrous opportunity to re-invent themselves in a new land. Where this may have once been true, it does not need to be stated by Fitzgerald that Gatsby has failed to achieve this, adding to the feeling of sympathy and sheer sadness in the ending of the novel, portraying Gatsby, once again, as a victim of the changed times (i. e. a time where social classes have become fixed). Fitzgerald has hinted to the importance of time in the section already (as shown above): he also employs time as a device twice more, the second instance being one of the most powerful devices in the entire novel. The first instance is when Nick describes spending his Saturday nights in New York because he was constantly reminded of Gatsbys dazzling, gleaming parties when in West Egg, showing how Nicks life has been greatly impacted upon by Gatsby, but also showing how he wishes to forget the oppressive revelry and decadence of those parties, the latter of which shows that Gatsbys attempts to make himself popular end up pushing even those closest to him away, again highlighting the harsh hopelessness of his dream. The second (incredibly powerful) instance where Fitzgerald uses time embodies many themes of the book: Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eludes us then, but thats no matter tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms further And one fine morning So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past. It is on this note that Fitzgerald ends the novel, a note of despair at the foolishness of human optimism; a note of frustration at the impossibility of reaching the green light, regardless of its seeming proximity; a note of hopelessness concerning the irresistible pull of the past, haunting those who strive to transcend its boundaries. The moving ambiguity of the final segment shows Nick neither rejecting nor accepting the American Dream as a reality, merely his thoughts on the difficulty in achieving it, interlaced with a thoughtful farewell to his friend, who tried and failed to transform his dreams into a reality. It is, then, the last page or so of The Great Gatsby that saves the conclusion of the story. Previously, Fitzgerald had pushed the story into a state of relaxed formality which, following the breakneck pace of the climactic scenes, seemed almost irrelevant. The novel had made the transition from action to contemplation effectively, but was in danger of stagnating into a rather lifeless ending. It is on the last pages, where Nick (Fitzgerald) describes the fruitlessness of dreams with such expressiveness, that the ending transforms from being slightly formulaic into being a swirling cocktail of emotions and ideas on life, touching on issues almost shockingly fundamental with the characteristic exquisite simplicity that flows through the veins of this brilliant tale, making the conclusion both memorable for the reader and reflective of the prevalent themes of the novel.